Contact information of investigator(s):
Model grid type:
Lambert Conic Conformal
standard latitude 1 = 60
standard latitude 2 = 30
standard longitude = -100
cone factor = 0.7155668
Horizontal grid spacing (or equivalent node spacing for spectral models):
52 km, centered on 35, -100
85 n-s and 101 e-w grid points
Model vertical coordinate and number of vertical levels:
sigma, 23 levels
Lateral boundary relaxation method and number of points in buffer zone:
Linear nudging of boundary data toward internal solution over 4 grid points
Number of soil layers for which soil temperature is computed:
4 layers (Noah LSM)
Number of soil layers for which soil water content is computed:
4 layers (Noah LSM)
Number of surface vegetation types:
16 land surface classes from US Geological Survey SiB model
Formulation for boundary-layer fluxes (e.g., local K-theory based upon gradient Richardson number):
Hong-Pan (MRF) PBL, using Troen-Mahrt representation of countergradient term and nonlocal K profile
Representation of explicit precipitation (e.g., rain and ice physics):
Dudhia scheme, simple ice physics
snow and ice clouds only permitted below 0C; liquid clouds only permitted above 0C
snow only permitted below 0C; rain only premitted above 0C
Prognostic variables for explicit precipitation (e.g., cloud water; rain water; number of ice species):
cloud water, rain water
Formulation for convective parameterization (e.g., Kuo-type):
Grell, no shallow convection
Reference(s) containing model description:
Grell, J. Dudhia, and D. R. Stauffer, 1993: A description of the fifth-generation Penn State/NCAR mesoscale model (MM5). NCAR Tech. Note NCAR/TN-397+STR. National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO, 200 pp.
Dudhia, J., and J. F. Bresch, 2002: A global version of the PSU-NCAR mesoscale model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 2989-3007.
Reference(s) describing land-surface parameterization:
Chen, F., and J. Dudhia, 2001: Coupling an advanced land-surface/hydrology model with the Penn State/NCAR MM5 modeling system. Part I: Model implementation and sensitivity. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 569-585.
Chen, F., and J. Dudhia, 2001: Coupling an advanced land-surface/hydrology model with the Penn State/NCAR MM5 modeling system. Part I: Preliminary model validation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 129, 587-604.
Reference(s) describing convective parameterization:
Kain, J. S., and J. M. Fritsch, 1990: A one-dimensional entraining/detraining plume model and its application in convective parameterization. J. Atmos. Sci., 47, 2784-2802.
Reference(s) describing boundary-layer parameterization:
Hong, S.-Y., and H. L. Pan, 1996: Nonlocal boundary layer vertical diffusions in a medium-range forecast model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 124, 2322-2339.
Reference(s) describing explicit precipitation paramerization:
Dudhia, J., 1989: Numerical study of convection observed during the Winter Monsoon Experiment using a mesoscale two-dimensional model. J. Atmos. Sci., 46, 3077-3107.